What Are Coordination Compounds?
Compounds that contain one or more than one coordinate bonds and acts like a link between a pair of electrons where both the electrons are donated by one of the atoms. Or
Any compound that contains a coordination complex is called a coordination compound.
Some examples of coordination compounds are Triruthenium dodecacarbonyl, haemoglobin.
Properties Of Coordination Compounds
- Ligands are also termed as complexing agents. They are Lewis bases and contain minimum one pair of electrons to give to the metal ion.
- Metal ions or atoms are also termed as Lewis acids. They have the potential to accept the pair of electrons from Lewis bases.
- Donor atom is an atom which is directly bonded to the metal atom or ion inside the ligand.
- A covalent bond where one single atom is responsible for the supply of both the electrons is called a coordinate covalent bond.
- When any coordination complex consists of a net charge, then it is a complex ion.
- The central metal atom or ion along with its attached ligands constituent coordination sphere. It is enclosed in brackets when it appears in a formula.
- The count of donor atoms which are bonded to the central metal ion or atom is called coordination number.
Coordination Compounds Nomenclature
The below set of rules are made to name a coordination compound:
Rule 1: Name the metal ion after the ligands while naming a coordinate compound.
Rule 2: The order of the ligands while naming should be in the order as mentioned here: neutral ligand, negative ligand, positive ligand. In case of more than one ligand with the same type of charge, then they are preferred to be written in alphabetical order.
Rule 3: Monodentate ligands receive a prefix based on the number of existence: hexa, penta, tetra, tri, or di. Polydentate ligands receive tetrakis, tris, bis, and so on.
Rule 4: Neutral ligands are written with usual names such as NH3 is named as ammine; H2O is named as aquo or aqua and so on.
Rule 5: The central atom’s name will end in -ate, if the complex is an anion.
Rule 6: To write the central atom’s oxidation state use the Roman numeral.
Applications Of Coordination Compounds
- Coordination compounds are used in various industries for intense colouration.
- These compounds are used in photography and electroplating.
- Used in the extraction of metals from their ores.
- Used to know the hardness of water.
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